Champion Operating Instructions
About the Champion
The Bethlehem Champion Bench Burner was designed for use with gas and oxygen. Propane is the preferable gas, and is readily available from gas distributors. Be sure that your gas distributor can supply you with a pressure regulator. The regulator should be equipped with a gauge so you can see how much fuel remains in your fuel tank, and indicate the pressure you are sending to the torch.
BEFORE OPERATING ANY GAS BURNER YOU SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THE ODOR OF THE FUEL YOU ARE USING. ALL GAS FUELS HAVE A DISTINCT ODOR. THE MANUFACTURER PURPOSELY ADDS THE ODOR SO YOU CAN EASILY DETECT A GAS LEAK. THE ODOR IS DIFFERENT FROM THE SMELL OF BURNED FUEL (CALLED PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION). READ ALL INSTRUCTION MANUALS SUPPLIED BY YOUR GAS DISTRIBUTOR BEFORE OPERATING YOUR NEW BURNER.
Theory of Operation:
The Champion is designed to produce a wide variety of flame configurations so you can have the greatest versatility in your glass working. The flame is surface-mixed and operates without loud noise or flashback. Surface-mixed flames have the distinct advantage in that they are soft, quiet flames while producing a penetrating heat. Turning the precision needle valves easily changes flame settings. For best results, keep the fuel flow to a minimum. On Bethlehem Burners, loud noise does not indicate more heat. The soft, intense blue flame will bathe your work in heat which will quickly penetrate the glass.
For best results, you should light the gas flame first. Once you have the yellow flame close to the burner head, you can slowly add oxygen. As soon as oxygen is added, the color will change from yellow to blue. This indicates complete combustion. As you change the flame height you should always keep the flame color as blue as possible. The individual jets (small cones of sharp color near the burner face) should be kept from giving off any yellow “candles”. Yellow candles indicate unburned fuel. They are usually caused by the addition of too much gas, either by volume or pressure.
Unburned fuel will cause carbon deposits in the face of the burner. Keep carbon deposits to a minimum. If a deposit builds up on the burner face, you will overheat the front face, causing the burner to deteriorate. Carbon deposits will also change the flame characteristics of your burner. Use the stainless steel cleaning wire to remove all carbon deposits.
To extinguish the flame you should always turn off the oxygen before the gas. Do not over tighten the valves.
For more information about Bethlehem Burners visit our web site at: https://www.bethlehemburners.com
The Champion has four modular valves attached to the side of the burner. The larger diameter valves work the outer fire and the smaller diameter valves work the inner fire. A red knob indicates gas connections and a green knob indicates oxygen connections. GAS is also stamped on the gas valve cap and OXY is stamped on the valve cap for oxygen. The four separate hose barbs, inch inside diameter, allow for working the Champion with a footpedal oxygen saver. If foot-pedal mechanisms are not desired then the gas and oxygen connections may be combined with a T-connector. Be sure to only connect gas lines to each other. We have supplied your burner with Bfitting hose connectors for safety reasons. The hoses with B-fittings will prevent you from connecting the gas and oxygen improperly. B-fittings have different threads to prevent mistakes in connecting gas and oxygen lines. If you want to connect your gas and oxygen lines to one main hose, you will need a T-connector. B-fitting Tconnectors are available through welding supply companies as well as many glass art supply houses. Be sure and use T–connectors and NOT Y-connectors. Yconnectors are too small for proper fuel supply requirements.
The Champion uses silicone O-rings at seven (7) locations. Three of the O-rings are internal connections and four of the O-rings connect to the four modular valves. While the O-rings are rated for high temperatures (approximately 400 degrees F), they may dry out over time. Replacement of the internal O-rings must be done at the factory. Replacement of the O-rings on the valve may be done in the field. If you start to experience FLASHBACK (covered below) return the burner for O-ring replacement.
Optimum Fuel Pressure:
Gas: 2 psi to 10 psi.
Oxygen: 8 psi to 20 psi.
DO NOT EXCEED 25 lbs. pressure on any feed. Excess pressure may cause gas or oxygen to leak through the valves and increase the chance of leakage through the hose
Bethlehem Champion Burner Technical Characteristics:
All Bethlehem Burners are gas and oxygen surface-mixed. The gas and oxygen are kept separate until they leave the face of the burner. This style of burner allows for the greatest flexibility in operation without flashback.
Bethlehem’s Champion allows the operator the freedom of regulating the flame size simply by turning the gas or oxygen valves; whereas a standard pre-mix burner would require the operator to change burner tips to achieve similar results in performance.
A flashback is when pre-mixed fuels burn inside the burner body, resulting in a flame blow out, or even an internal flame that will destroy a burner.
The surface-mixed burner, as in the Champion, is safer because they will not allow the fuel mixture to burn inside the burner body. Therefore, as in pre-mix burners, fire checks and flame arrestors are not required with the Champion. To test your burner for proper performance, just simply turn off the oxygen flow. If there is a loud bang, then pre-mixing is occurring and the burner should be returned to Bethlehem Apparatus for repairs.
DO NOT USE BURNERS THAT MAKE A LOUD BANG WHEN THE OXYGEN SUPPLY IS ABRUPTLY CUT OFF.
Bethlehem’s Champion is designed to burn natural gas, hydrogen, propane or butane fuels. Do not use acetylene. Acetylene contains excess carbon that will clog the gas ports on the burner face.
Carbon Monoxide Warning
All Bethlehem Burners are designed to be operated with gas and oxygen. The burners are intended to produce an open flame. EXTREME CARE must be taken to assure that combustible materials are kept away from the open flame. The burner flame is combustion, which results in the production of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, which is a highly poisonous, odorless, colorless, tasteless gas. It is very flammable. Be sure to use adequate ventilation when operating burners. Use a carbon monoxide detector in the room where burners are operated. Do not smoke around combustible gases.
All Bethlehem Burners are surface-mixed and do not require a flashback arrestor, which is required for pre-mix torches. However, the need for a flashback arrestor may be subject to regulation. Therefore, we advise all of our burner customers to check with their local, state and federal regulations regarding burner/ torch requirements.
In accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) the use of liquid fuel i.e. propane, butane, and natural gas requires that all containers are to be stored outside.
(3) Installation of container appurtenances and regulators
(4). Installation of piping (including flexible connectors and hose), hydrostatic relief valves and piping service limitations.
LP-Gas containers shall be located outside of buildings unless they are specifically allowed to be located inside of buildings.
Containers installed outside of buildings, whether of the portable type replaced on a cylinder exchange basis or permanently installed and refilled at the installation, shall be located with respect to the adjacent containers, important building, group of buildings, or line of adjoining property that can be built upon.